Based on the direction of data from sender to receiver,
there can be 3 types of transmission modes which are discussed below.

Despite of the many advantages of E-commerce, there are some disadvantages of E-commerce. These disadvantages are minor and most of them will be no more with time and updates in technology. However, following are some of the disadvantages of E-commerce.

A network must meet a certain number of criteria to become useable in real world situation. Most important of these criteria are the three criteria as follows.

The effectiveness of a data communications system depends on the following four fundamental characteristics.

Data communications are the exchange of data between two devices using one or multiple forms of transmission medium. The devices are in need to be a part of a communication system made up of hardware and software.

Following are the five components of a data communications system.

Let us consider a first order reaction,

A → product

Suppose at the beginning of the reaction, that is, when t=0, the concentration of A is amolL and when t=t, the concentration of A is (a-x)molL.

For a first order reaction, the rate of reaction,

where k is the rate constant.

integrating,

Here, c is the constant of integration.

A → product

Suppose at the beginning of the reaction, that is, when t=0, the concentration of A is amolL and when t=t, the concentration of A is (a-x)molL.

For a first order reaction, the rate of reaction,

where k is the rate constant.

integrating,

Here, c is the constant of integration.

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