## General Properties of Nucleus:

### (i) Nuclear Size:

From Rutherford’s work, the mean radius of nucleus is and the radius of the atom is . Thus the radius of the nucleus is 10,000 times smaller than the radius of the atom.The empirical formula for the nuclear radius is,

Here, A is the mass number, is a constant.

From this formula the radius of the Carbon () nucleus is.

### (ii) Nuclear Mass:

If there are Z protons and N neutrons then the assumed mass is,

Where, is the mass of each proton and is mass of each neutron. But,

Real nuclear mass <

Difference of the masses,

Δm is called the mass defect.

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### (iii) Nuclear Density:

Here, nuclear mass = , where A is the mass number and is the mass of the nucleon =

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