What is Software Specification Activity? Describe the four main phases of software specification activity?

Software Specification:

Software specification or requirements engineering is one of the four activities of software process. In software specification, the task is to identifying and defining the services to be provided from the system and what are the constraints in the operations of the system and in the development of the system. This stage, among the four activities of software process, is critical enough as this is the first stage of the process and defines the whole system. Missing or misunderstanding requirements, leaving gaps or errors will ultimately cause higher development cost, time and rework.

Describe the Waterfall Software Process Model

Waterfall Software Process Model:

Waterfall model software process model was derived from general system engineering process and it is so called as the stages go top to bottom and while one stage of the process is complete it moves to the next stage and not supposed to come back to any previous stage. That is one stage is supposed to be started if and only if the previous stage is finished and approved to move on to the next stage. However, in practice, things doesn't happen this way.

Following is an illustration of the involved stages of Waterfall model.

How To Add/Remove a Label To/From Multiple Posts at a Time in Blogger?

Dear blogger users, when we start blogging with blogger we misuse labels in blogger in blog posts. We generally forget that labels in blogger blog posts are like categories. Sometimes we might also not use meaningful labels to blog posts. Instead we use meaningless labels to our blog posts. Thus after a year, when we start learning more about categorizing blog posts with labels, we find hundreds of meaningless or misused or misspelled labels in our blog posts.

How to add adsense ads in the middle of the content in blogger template?

Middle of the Content is the best performing ad position for me so far among all the 5 Best Ad Positions I discussed earlier. This ad position is so effective as the reader sees the ad while reading your post and if you can blend the ad style with the style of the content then the reader will definitely click on it if the ad is relative to the content and valuable to the reader's interest.

I am going to discuss two ways, both ways required you to setup a bit of jQuery code in your template initially. Where the ways differ is that in the second way, you have to EDIT HTML of your content (post or page).

Both of the ways, require jQuery, those one with good JS understanding can implement this without jQuery.

What is control unit? What are the functions of control unit?

Control Unit:

Control unit co-ordinates the transfer of data between registers of CPU or microprocessor and ALU. Control unit serves the instructions for ALU. Along with this, control unit, as its name implies, controls every other parts of the machine, their co-ordinations, traffic etc.

Thus control unit controls the complete work-flow of the CPU. But control unit doesn't take inputs, give outputs, process data or store data itself, what control unit do is, it controls these operations when they are performed by respective devices.

Discuss the organization and functions of ALU or Arithmetic & Logic Unit

Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU):

Arithmetic and Logic Unit is a like a calculator to a computer. ALU performs all arithmetic operations along with decision making functions. In modern CPU or Microprocessors, there can be more than one integrated ALU to speed up arithmetical and logical operations, such as; integer unit, floating point unit etc.

What is Microprocessor? What are the functions of microprocessor?


A type of computer processors that incorporates the functions of a computer's center processing unit (CPU) onto a single integrated circuit is called a microprocessor. A microprocessor is a VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) Silicon Chip. A microprocessor accepts digital or binary data, processes it according to instructions stored in it's memory and provides results as output.

Microprocessors are considered to be the brain of Microcomputers or Microprocessor based computer. Microprocessor contains both combinational logic and sequential digital logic.

What is CPU? What are the functions of CPU?

CPU (Central Processing Unit):

CPU or central processing unit is an electronic circuitry that carries out the instruction given by a computer program. CPU execute instruction by performing basic arithmetic, logical, control and I/O operations as required per instruction. CPU is considered to be the brain of the computer. The speed and efficiency of a computer mostly depends that of it's CPU.

How to add adsense ad code AFTER the CONTENT in blogger template?

After the content is one of the recommended ad positions I have already mentioned in the post 5 Best Ad Positions to Increase Adsense Revenue. In this post, we will see how we can add adsense ad code after the content of each post and page. We will do this in the blogger template so that we don't have to do this for each post and page.

How to add adsense ad code BEFORE the CONTENT in blogger template?

Before the content is one of the recommended ad positions I have already mentioned in the post 5 Best Ad Positions to Increase Adsense Revenue. In this post, we will see how we can add adsense ad code before the content of each post and page. We will do this in the blogger template so that we don't have to do this for each post and page.

How to find the data:post.body or post body in blogger template?

In blogger template, <data:post.body/> is the tag which prints out the full body of your post. This is important to know where this tag is to do things around post body. But the problem is, in some templates there can more than one <data:post.body/>. So how to find which one is the one that prints your post? Unfortunately there is only one way, debugging.

How to get variable value from URL query string in PHP?

We already know that we can get URL query string variable in $_GET super global array. But sometimes we might have to analyze a string which is an URL with query string and need to pull out value of a given variable from that. Also, it can be that we were given only the query part of an URL as string and we have to find out value of a given variable. Lets see how we can face this issue.

How to read the RAW version of POST data in PHP?

Well when you submit data using a form or anyway and the method is POST then you get the submitted data in a super global array called $_POST. But the data in the $_POST will be slightly modified by PHP that you sometimes, as per your requirement, may not be the exact same thing you inserted. But there is also another way you can access the data in $_POST without any modification, that is the RAW version.

Using Group Names in PHP preg_match() regex to index matched results by names instead of numeric values

Using regular expressions is a very effective way to find a sub-string or all matched sub-string from a given string or text. But when you call them they give you matched results in a array with numeric indexes which is not helpful enough to get your data out of the matched results. Following is the way to index matched results by name.

8 Easy Tips to Improve Bounce Rate or Increase Pageviews/User

What is Bounce Rate?

Bounce rate is the percentage of visitors of your site which leave your site from the very page they arrived at without visiting any other page. The more the bounce rate is, the more worst the case is.

Consider that you get 1000 unique visitors each day, and if your bounce rate is 100% then you get only 1000 page views as all your visitors bounced away right from page they arrived without navigating to any other pages.

So this is important to improve the bounce rate of your website to get more page views at the end of the day. Bounce rate in entertainment websites, news websites are always very good. On the other hand, sites like tips and tricks, solution to specific problem, tutorial sites do not generally get better bounce rate as readers on this website generally arrive with a problem in mind and they take solution and leave it to apply the solution. But this is just a general scenario.

What is Tree in Data Structure? Explain different types of trees.


Data frequently contain a hierarchical relationship between various elements. The data structure which reflects this relationship is called a rooted tree graph or simply a tree. Among different types of data structures in practice, tree is very important to store and manipulate data with complex relationship. This is sometimes like the properties of an object. For example, properties to store of an employee in the office directory can be name, age, sex, salary etc. Again the properties “name” can have sub-properties like first name, middle name, last name etc. This can be showed as follows.

What is Tree in Data Structure? Explain different types of trees.