Describe the low pass filter.

Low Pass Filter : Considering the grey-scale values of a part of an image as below,
Here, we have taken 9 grey scale values. It is seen that the 5th value is very different than the other 8 values, that is a big change is occurring at that point due to the big change of the grey-scale value at that point than the other points.

Describe the fundamental steps of digital image processing with a neat block diagram.

Fundamental Steps of Digital Image Processing:

There are some fundamental steps but as they are fundamental, all these steps may have sub-steps. The fundamental steps are described below with a neat diagram.

1. Image Acquisition:

This is the first step or process of the fundamental steps of digital image processing. Image acquisition could be as simple as being given an image that is already in digital form. Generally, the image acquisition stage involves pre-processing, such as scaling etc.

2. Image Enhancement:

Image enhancement is among the simplest and most appealing areas of digital image processing. Basically, the idea behind enhancement techniques is to bring out detail that is obscured, or simply to highlight certain features of interest in an image. Such as, changing brightness & contrast etc.

3. Image Restoration:

Image restoration is an area that also deals with improving the appearance of an image. However, unlike enhancement, which is subjective, image restoration is objective, in the sense that restoration techniques tend to be based on mathematical or probabilistic models of image degradation.

4. Color Image Processing:

Color image processing is an area that has been gaining its importance because of the significant increase in the use of digital images over the Internet. This may include color modeling and processing in a digital domain etc.

5. Wavelets and Multi-Resolution Processing:

Wavelets are the foundation for representing images in various degrees of resolution. Images subdivision successively into smaller regions for data compression and for pyramidal representation.

6. Compression:

Compression deals with techniques for reducing the storage required to save an image or the bandwidth to transmit it. Particularly in the uses of internet it is very much necessary to compress data.


7. Morphological Processing:

Morphological processing deals with tools for extracting image components that are useful in the representation and description of shape.

8. Segmentation:

Segmentation procedures partition an image into its constituent parts or objects. In general, autonomous segmentation is one of the most difficult tasks in digital image processing. A rugged segmentation procedure brings the process a long way toward successful solution of imaging problems that require objects to be identified individually.

9. Representation and Description:

Representation and description almost always follow the output of a segmentation stage, which usually is raw pixel data, constituting either the boundary of a region or all the points in the region itself. Choosing a representation is only part of the solution for transforming raw data into a form suitable for subsequent computer processing. Description deals with extracting attributes that result in some quantitative information of interest or are basic for differentiating one class of objects from another.

10. Object recognition:

Recognition is the process that assigns a label, such as,  “vehicle” to an object based on its descriptors.

11. Knowledge Base:

Knowledge may be as simple as detailing regions of an image where the information of interest is known to be located, thus limiting the search that has to be conducted in seeking that information. The knowledge base also can be quite complex, such as an interrelated list of all major possible defects in a materials inspection problem or an image database containing high-resolution satellite images of a region in connection with change-detection applications.

What is digital image processing?

Digital Image Processing : An image which has a two dimensional function of f(x,y), where x and y are plane co-ordinates and the amplitude of f at any (x,y) is called the grey level of the image at that point. When the values of these of an image are finite, discrete quantities then the image is called a digital image. ... 

Explain Cross Elasticity of Demand.

Cross Elasticity of Demand : Cross elasticity of demand occurs when a change in price of a commodity brings the change in demand of another commodity. The cross elasticity of demand for two goods X and Y, is the ratio of the percentage change of quantity purchased of X to the percentage change in price of Y.

            Cross elasticity of demand occurs for two goods which are interrelated, such as complementary goods, substitutable goods, etc. ... 

Explain Income elasticity of demand.

Income elasticity of demand : A persons demand for a good may change with his\her change in income. The income elasticity of demand is the ratio of percentage change quantity purchased per time to the percentage change in income. Thus,

Explain Price elasticity of demand

Price Elasticity of Demand : Price elasticity of demand measures the quantitative response of demand to a change in price. This is the ratio of percentage change in demand to the percentage change in price. So the price elasticity of demand is,

What is elasticity, elasticity of demand, elastic demand, and inelastic demand?

         Elasticity : In economics, elasticity is the ratio of the percentage change in one variable to the percentage change in another variable. Elasticity is a popular tool among empiricists because it is independent of units and thus simplifies the analysis. ... 

Show the market demand for a commodity with example and explanation.

Market Demand For a Commodity : The market demand for a commodity means the total demand for a commodity made by all the individuals in the market. The market demand for a commodity gives the alternative amounts of a commodity demanded per time period, at various alternative prices, by all the individuals in the market. It depends on all the factors as the individuals demand depends on. It is obtained by the horizontal summation of all the individuals demand curves for the commodity. ... 

What is shift in demand curve? Explain with example.

Shift in Demand Curve : Shift in demand curve means the change in demand curve. This change will have to be for the change in ceteris paribus. That is when the price of a commodity remains constant and the other things which can affect the demand of the commodity changes, a shift can be found in the demand curve. This shift may be either leftward or rightward, meaning the decrease in demand and increase in demand respectively. ... 

Explain the law of negatively sloped demand curve.

Law of Negatively Sloped Demand Curve:

            First, obtain the demand schedule; the formula is,

                                                Qdx = f(Px)

            Considering, an individual demand function for a commodity X is given by,

                                                Qdx =8 - Px    cet.par.

            Here, Qdx  is the quantity demanded and Px is the price of X commodity.

Draw and explain a demand curve by obtaining a demand schedule.

Obtaining Demand Schedule:

To obtain the demand schedule the formula is,

                                                Qdx = f(Px)

Considering, an individual demand function for a commodity X is given by,

                                                Qdx =8 - Px    cet.par.

Here, Qdx  is the quantity demanded and Px is the price of X commodity.

What is / Define Demand, Demand Schedule and Demand Curve.


The desire for a commodity of an individual or a group will be called their demand when they are able to pay for that commodity. That is demand is desire with account to pay.

What is opportunity cost? How / Is opportunity cost related with PPF?

Opportunity Cost:

Life is full of choices. Because resources are scarce, we must always consider how to spend our limited income or time. In a world of scarcity choosing one thing means giving up something else. If there is no increase in productive resources, increasing production of a first good has to entail decreasing production of a second, because resources must be transferred to the first and away from the second. 

What is production possibility frontier (PPF)? Explain.

Production Possibility Frontier (PPF) : In economics, a production possibility frontier (PPF) is a graph that shows the different rates of production of two goods that an individual or group can efficiently produce with limited productive resources. The PPF shows the maximum obtainable amount of one commodity for any given amount of another commodity or composite of all other commodities, given the society's technology and the amount of factors of production available. ... 

What are the differences between microeconomics and macroeconomics?

Differences Between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics: 

The study of economics is divided into microeconomics and macroeconomics by the modern economists. Both of them discuss the economical activities but are used in different sectors under different circumstances. In spit of having some similarities, they also have some differences which have been given below.

What are microeconomics and macroeconomics?

The study of economics is divided into microeconomics and macroeconomics by the modern economists. Both of them discuss the economical activities but are used in different sectors under different circumstances.

What are the three problems of economic organizations? How can the three problems of economic organization be solved in free and mixed economics?

Three Problems of Economic Organizations:

In every economy; economic organizations, irrespective of their type, have to face and solve three problems of economics. These three problems are as follows,

  1. What commodities are produced & in what quantities.
  2. How goods are produced.
  3. For whom goods are produced.

Description and solution to these problems in fee and mixed economies is given below.

Define Economics / Definition of Economics / What is Economics ?

          Economics : The word ‘Economics’ has been originated from the Greek word ‘Oikonomia’ which means ‘Management of household wealth’. As being social, humans face various wants and needs. Economics is all about those activities which occur to fulfill these wants and needs. In fact, Economics describes the economical activities of humans in daily life. Founder of Economics is Adam Smith. ... 

Define the term Solution / What is Solution in Chemistry?

       Solution : Whenever two or more than two non-reacting substances are mixed, the resulting system is called a mixture. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in their molecular level.

Draw the molecular structure of XeF2, XeF4, XeF6.

Xenon forms three stable fluorides, XeF2, XeF4, XeF6. The molecular structure of XeF2 is linear, that of XeF4 is square planar and that of XeF6 is pentagonal pyramidal. They are given in the following figure,

What are inert gases ? why are they so called ?

               Inert gases : The elements of the zero group of the periodic table are known as inert gases. They are also known as noble or rare gases. The inert gases are six in numbers. They are,

Write a short note on Chemical Kinetics.

         Chemical kinetics : The branch of physical chemistry which deals with the study of the speed or rate of chemical reactions and also the explanation of their mechanism is called chemical kinetics.

What do you mean by conjugate acid-base pair ?

           Conjugate acid-base : The base formed by the donation of a single proton by an acid is called the conjugate base of the acid. Similarly, the acid formed by the acceptation of a single proton by a base is called the conjugate acid of the base.

What are the differences between order and molecularity ?