What are the five components of a data communications system?

Data Communications: 

Data communications are the exchange of data between two devices using one or multiple forms of transmission medium. The devices are in need to be a part of a communication system made up of hardware and software.

Following are the five components of a data communications system.


1. Data: 

Communication of data means a message or data will be transmitted from one device and will be received in the destination or target device. Thus the first component in a data communications system is data or message to deliver and receive. Data or message can be of various forms such as text, audio, video, image or combinations of these forms etc.

2. Sender: 

The device that sends the data to the destination or target is the Sender. It can be a computer, cell phone, video camera and so on. 

3. Receiver: 

The device that receives the data that was sent by the Sender is the Receiver. A receiver can again be a computer, cell phone, video camera and so on.


4. Transmission medium: 

The transmission medium is the physical path for the data to travel to its destination after being sent by the Sender. Receiver receives the data at one end of this path and the sender sent from another end of the path. Transmission medium could be like twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable etc.

5. Protocol: 

A protocol is nothing but a set of rules that applies on the full data communication procedure. This is like an agreement between the two devices to successfully communicate with each other. For example, how the data will be sent, how the data will be traveling, how to ensure that full data has received, how to handle errors in transmission etc. Both devices follow the same set of rules or protocol so that they understand each other.

Author: Tanmay Chakrabarty

Tanmay Chakrabarty is a former CSE student, currently working as a Senior Software Engineer with 5+ years of experience in the field of Web Application development in PHP+MySQL platform with strong skills in Javascript, JQuery, JQuery UI and CSS. He tries to write notes every week but fails due to heavy loads of duty.

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