Define Delivery? Explain various delivery concepts or methods.

Delivery: 

Delivery refers to the way a packet is handled by the underlying network under the control of the network layer. Various delivery concepts are explained below.

Connection Types: 

Delivery of a packet in the network layer is accomplished by either a connection oriented service or a connection-less service.

What is connecting device? Describe various connecting devices.

Connecting Devices: 

Devices that are used to connect other devices are called connecting devices. That is, connecting device is a device that connects.

There are 4 types of connecting devices. They are as follows,

Describe CSMA/CA or Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA):

This is a wireless network multiple access method defined by IEEE 802.11 standard. CSMA/CA is a modification to CSMA/CD. Collision detection as in CSMA/CD is not applicable for several reason, one reason is Hidden Terminal Problem.

Describe CSMA/CD or describe the access method of Ether LANs.

CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection): 

The IEEE 802.3 defines the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) as the standard access method for traditional Ethernet. Stations in a traditional Ethernet can be connected using a physical bus or star topology, but the logical topology is always a bus. It means that the medium is shared and only one station can use it at a single time. But the problem is the assurance that only one station is using the medium at a time is solve d as follows,