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What is Motherboard? What are the role or functions of motherboard?


A motherboard is a printed circuit board (PCB) that holds other modular devices, both required and additional, and facilitate communication among the devices to actually have the computer be functional.

Motherboard is like a backbone to a computer system. Components like CPU, RAM, Harddisks along with additional devices like TV Cards, graphics etc. all initially connects to the motherboard. The motherboard enables the devices by ensuring power supply to the device, transferring instruction from and to the device etc.

Define Instruction Set Architecture. What are the main objectives of ISA in computer systems.

Instruction Set Architecture (ISA):

An instruction set is the interface between a computer's software and its hardware, and thereby enables the independent development of these two computing realms. ISA is the set of basic instructions that a processor understands.

ISA includes functional definition of operations, modes, and storage locations supported by hardware and precise description of how to invoke, and access them.

What are CISC & RISC? What are differences between CISC and RISC?

The instruction set or the instruction set architecture (ISA) is the set of basic instructions that a processor understands. The instruction set is a portion of what makes up an architecture.

Two initial types of instruction set architecture are CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) and RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer).

Explain Software Design & Implementation Activity

Software Design & Implementation Activity:

The implementation stage of software development is the process of converting a system specification into an executable system. A software design is a description of the structure of the software to be implemented, the data which is part of the system, the interfaces between system components and, sometimes, the algorithms used. Designers design step by step to meet the finished design to be implemented in programming to crease an executable system out of the specification.

Thus, output of each stage of the design process is the input of the next stage. Stages continue until a finished design is met which includes all the specification and work involved in the development of the software.

How to read and write INI files in PHP?

INI Files:

INI files are simple text files with a basic structure consisting of sections, property and value. INI files can be used across different platform which is a great advantage as a single INI file can be used in various versions of the same application for various platforms. INI files are used to store configurations for applications in a manner of property = value. Values can be single or one dimensional array. Also sections can be used to group same type of configurations. The last thing is comments, we can write comments in INI files. Comments in INI files starts with ; (semicolon)

How to Save PHP Array in Database in PHP

When we create management system or a CMS like application, we need to store a lot of configuration per user, per module etc. Multidimensional array is the best ever thing to work with in such situation. Configuration can be of two different types; searchable and not searchable. Searchable configurations are those which are used to filter a search result. For example various flags, tags, categories that we store with contents. We might need to filter contents with this flags, tags etc. No searchable configurations are like widget settings. We do not search for settings of an widget, rather we need those settings while rendering the widget.

How to read commented lines in a PHP file in PHP?

Did you ever noticed the commented lines over theme files, widget and plugin files in PHP in different CMS like wordpress etc.? These commented lines are not there just because the developer wanted to, these are most probably there as the system where the file will be used requires those lines to be there at the beginning of the file to describe the files in terms such as the name of the theme or plugin, created date, author name, last modified, version name etc. These information about the file then can later be used in the system or CMS.

This purpose can be solved in many ways, such as
  1. Using a .ini file
  2. Using a separate .php file that returns an array of information
  3. Using a array-string-array method
  4. Using .txt or any file with any or no extension
  5. Using a registration method

How to pass or use PHP array in Javascript variable?

Multidimensional PHP arrays are similar to multidimensional JSON objects. So shouldn't be there a way to use a multidimensional PHP array in Javascript? Obviously, and there is ways. For example you can use AJAX to make a request and get the PHP back in JSON format. However, why to make an AJAX call if the array is ready to be used already? Right.

If the PHP array is ready to be used in Javascript already, then just simply echo the PHP array in a Javascript variable as follows.

What is Software Specification Activity? Describe the four main phases of software specification activity?

Software Specification:

Software specification or requirements engineering is one of the four activities of software process. In software specification, the task is to identifying and defining the services to be provided from the system and what are the constraints in the operations of the system and in the development of the system. This stage, among the four activities of software process, is critical enough as this is the first stage of the process and defines the whole system. Missing or misunderstanding requirements, leaving gaps or errors will ultimately cause higher development cost, time and rework.

Describe the Waterfall Software Process Model

Waterfall Software Process Model:

Waterfall model software process model was derived from general system engineering process and it is so called as the stages go top to bottom and while one stage of the process is complete it moves to the next stage and not supposed to come back to any previous stage. That is one stage is supposed to be started if and only if the previous stage is finished and approved to move on to the next stage. However, in practice, things doesn't happen this way.

Following is an illustration of the involved stages of Waterfall model.