Class Notes: Software Engineering
Class Notes: C Programming
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Class Notes: Computer Fundamentals

Explain the Basic Structure of a C Program with an Example.

Basic structure of C programming: 

To write a C program, we first create functions and then put them together. A C program may contain one or more sections. They are illustrated below.

What is computer threat? Describe any 6 computer threats.

Computer Threats:

A threat, in general, is a person or a thing likely to cause damage or danger. In computer security, a computer threat is a possible danger that might exploit vulnerability to breach security and therefore cause possible harm. A computer threat is any activity that can cause damage to private or any data of an user or organization or any system in ways like removing, stealing, manipulating etc. This can be more summarized to unauthorized access to data of a system and causing damage to that.

What is malware? Describe any 5 types of computer malware with an example.


Malicious Software or Malware is any piece of software that disrupts computer operation, steal information, gain access to private systems or display unwanted advertising. Malware causes intentional harm, direct or indirect, to the computer by damaging files etc. or to the user by stealing sensitive information of the user from the computer etc. A software with bug causing unintentional harm is not a Malware. Malware are developed with targets which can be as simple as displaying ads to as serious as deleting or damaging files to stealing bank account or credit card information of the user.

What are the steps followed by CPU to Execute an Instruction?

CPU (Central Processing Unit):

CPU or central processing unit is an electronic circuitry that carries out the instruction given by a computer program. CPU execute instruction by performing basic arithmetic, logical, control and I/O operations as required per instruction. CPU is considered to be the brain of the computer. The speed and efficiency of a computer mostly depends that of it's CPU.

What is Motherboard? What are the role or functions of motherboard?


A motherboard is a printed circuit board (PCB) that holds other modular devices, both required and additional, and facilitate communication among the devices to actually have the computer be functional.

Motherboard is like a backbone to a computer system. Components like CPU, RAM, Harddisks along with additional devices like TV Cards, graphics etc. all initially connects to the motherboard. The motherboard enables the devices by ensuring power supply to the device, transferring instruction from and to the device etc.

Define Instruction Set Architecture. What are the main objectives of ISA in computer systems.

Instruction Set Architecture (ISA):

An instruction set is the interface between a computer's software and its hardware, and thereby enables the independent development of these two computing realms. ISA is the set of basic instructions that a processor understands.

ISA includes functional definition of operations, modes, and storage locations supported by hardware and precise description of how to invoke, and access them.

Suggested Reading:
1. What are CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) & RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)? What are the differences between CISC & RISC?

What are CISC & RISC? What are differences between CISC and RISC?

The instruction set or the instruction set architecture (ISA) is the set of basic instructions that a processor understands. The instruction set is a portion of what makes up an architecture.

Two initial types of instruction set architecture are CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) and RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer).

Explain Software Design & Implementation Activity

Software Design & Implementation Activity:

The implementation stage of software development is the process of converting a system specification into an executable system. A software design is a description of the structure of the software to be implemented, the data which is part of the system, the interfaces between system components and, sometimes, the algorithms used. Designers design step by step to meet the finished design to be implemented in programming to crease an executable system out of the specification.

Thus, output of each stage of the design process is the input of the next stage. Stages continue until a finished design is met which includes all the specification and work involved in the development of the software.

How to read and write INI files in PHP?

INI Files:

INI files are simple text files with a basic structure consisting of sections, property and value. INI files can be used across different platform which is a great advantage as a single INI file can be used in various versions of the same application for various platforms. INI files are used to store configurations for applications in a manner of property = value. Values can be single or one dimensional array. Also sections can be used to group same type of configurations. The last thing is comments, we can write comments in INI files. Comments in INI files starts with ; (semicolon)

How to Save PHP Array in Database in PHP

When we create management system or a CMS like application, we need to store a lot of configuration per user, per module etc. Multidimensional array is the best ever thing to work with in such situation. Configuration can be of two different types; searchable and not searchable. Searchable configurations are those which are used to filter a search result. For example various flags, tags, categories that we store with contents. We might need to filter contents with this flags, tags etc. No searchable configurations are like widget settings. We do not search for settings of an widget, rather we need those settings while rendering the widget.